StarkGate architecture

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While StarkGate is referred to as a bridge, technically, each supported token has its own bridge, each of which is defined in a corresponding pair of L1 and L2 contracts, as described in Components of a bridge for an individual token.

Table 1. Components of a bridge for an individual token


  • ERC-20 contract that defines the token on Ethereum. This contract must exist before you can bridge it.

  • Bridge functionality for ERC-20 tokens is supported in StarknetTokenBridge.sol.


  • StarkGate Cairo bridge contract instance of the token_bridge.cairo contract class.

  • ERC-20 Cairo token contract instance of a standard ERC-20 Cairo token contract class. Each new contract uses the hash of this class to define its inheritance. StarkGate creates this contract automatically when creating the bridge in StarkGate.

StarkGate 2.0 provides a contract that enables seamless backward compatibility with the previous version of StarkGate.

When you update the code in your contract, make sure that you use the most up-to-date versions of all StarkGate contracts.

You can check if a token is currently supported with the L1 function getBridge.

You can permissionlessly add support for ERC-20 tokens to the multi-token bridge using the enrollTokenBridge function.

The StarkGate Manager and Registry

StarkGate includes the following administration components:

The StarkGate Manager

is responsible for adding bridges

The StarkGate Registry
  • contains the addresses to all supported bridges

  • enables a bridge developer to stop servicing an existing bridge

Legacy bridges

All token bridges that existed prior to StarkGate 2.0 (Mainnet: January 2024) besides supporting all StarkGate 2.0 functionality, are backward compatible. Each token was bridged with a unique, custom pair of L1 and L2 bridge contracts. The L1 bridge is an instance of LegacyBridge.sol, and the L2 bridge is an instance of legacy_bridge_eic.cairo.

Example: USDC contracts

  • L1 ERC-20 contract address: 0xA0b86991c6218b36c1d19D4a2e9Eb0cE3606eB48

  • L2 ERC-20 contract address: 0x053c91253bc9682c04929ca02ed00b3e423f6710d2ee7e0d5ebb06f3ecf368a8

  • L1 bridge contract address: 0xF6080D9fbEEbcd44D89aFfBFd42F098cbFf92816

  • L2 bridge contract address: 0x05cd48fccbfd8aa2773fe22c217e808319ffcc1c5a6a463f7d8fa2da48218196

Consider the deposit functions for the L1 bridge contract for USDC on Etherscan: 0xf6080d9fbeebcd44d89affbfd42f098cbff92816#writeProxyContract

This contract has the following two deposit functions: deposit (0x0efe6a8b) and deposit (0xe2bbb158), which shows that the bridge includes support for the legacy functionality as well as the modern functionality:

deposit (0x0efe6a8b)

The StarkGate 2.0 contract, which includes support for all tokens within a single contract, requiring that you enter the address of the token in the deposit function.

deposit (0xe2bbb158)

The legacy contract, which is labeled Support Legacy ABI. This function does not include the token (address) parameter, because the contract that contains this function only supports USDC. Therefore, the address of the token is superfluous.

List of legacy bridges

The following tokens have legacy contracts as well as StarkGate 2.0 contracts:

  • Starknet Token (STRK)

  • Starknet Voting Token (vSTRK)

  • Wrapped BTC (WBTC)

  • USD Coin (USDC)

  • Tether USD (USDT)

  • Ether (ETH)

  • Dai Stablecoin (DAI)

  • Dai Stablecoin (DAI) (Dai v0)

  • Wrapped liquid staked Ether 2.0 (wstETH)

  • Rocket Pool ETH (rETH)

  • R Stablecoin (R)

  • Frax (FRAX)

  • Frax Share (FXS)

  • Staked Frax Ether (sfrxETH)

  • LUSD Stablecoin (LUSD)

  • Uniswap (UNI)

For complete details, see the bridged_tokens directory on GitHub.

Withdrawal limit

By default, StarkGate imposes no limit on withdrawals. However, in order to mitigate risks associated with critical vulnerabilities that could result in the loss of user funds, StarkGate can enable a withdrawal limit.

If a serious security issue arises, the security agent in the StarkGate contract can limit withdrawals to 5% of the Total Value Locked (TVL) per day for any affected token by calling the setWithdrawLimitPCT() function in the WithdrawalLimit.sol contract. A dedicated team can then investigate and resolve the issue.

Only a security admin quorum can disable the withdrawal limit. The quorum will consist of Starknet Foundation members, Starknet ecosystem contributors, and StarkWare representatives. This diverse group will ensure that decisions reflect the Starknet community’s broad interests.

This approach, blending manual oversight with automated detection, aims to minimize potential losses.

Additional resources