Writing Starknet contracts

In order to follow this tutorial you should have basic familiarity with writing Cairo code. For example, you can read the first few pages of the Hello, Cairo tutorial. You should also set up your environment and make sure your installed Cairo version is at least 0.10.0 (you can check your version by running cairo-compile --version).

Your first contract

Let’s start by looking at the following Starknet contract:

// Declare this file as a Starknet contract.
%lang starknet

from starkware.cairo.common.cairo_builtins import HashBuiltin

// Define a storage variable.
func balance() -> (res: felt) {

// Increases the balance by the given amount.
func increase_balance{
    syscall_ptr: felt*,
    pedersen_ptr: HashBuiltin*,
}(amount: felt) {
    let (res) = balance.read();
    balance.write(res + amount);
    return ();

// Returns the current balance.
func get_balance{
    syscall_ptr: felt*,
    pedersen_ptr: HashBuiltin*,
}() -> (res: felt) {
    let (res) = balance.read();
    return (res=res);

The first line, %lang starknet declares that this file should be read as a Starknet contract file, rather than a regular Cairo program file. Trying to compile this file with cairo-compile will result in a compilation error. Compiling Starknet contracts should be done with the starknet-compile command as we shall see below.

Next, we have an import statement. If you’re not familiar with this type of statement, refer to the Hello, Cairo tutorial. Note that you don’t need to explicitly use the %builtins directive in Starknet contracts.

The first new primitive that we see in the code is @storage_var. Unlike a Cairo program, which is stateless, Starknet contracts have a state, called “the contract’s storage”. Transactions invoked on such contracts may modify this state, in a way defined by the contract.

The @storage_var decorator declares a variable which will be kept as part of this storage. In our case, this variable consists of a single felt, called balance. To use this variable, we will use the balance.read() and balance.write() functions which are automatically created by the @storage_var decorator. When a contract is deployed, all its storage cells are initialized to zero. In particular, all storage variables are initially zero.

Starknet contracts have no main() function. Instead, each function may be annotated as an external function (using the @external decorator). External functions may be called by the users of Starknet, and by other contracts (see Calling another contract).

In our case, the contract has two external functions: increase_balance reads the current value of balance from the storage, adds the given amount to it and writes the new value back to storage. get_balance simply reads the balance and returns its value.

The @view decorator is identical to the @external decorator. The only difference is that the method is annotated as a method that only queries the state rather than modifying it. Note that in the current version this is not enforced by the compiler.

Consider the three implicit arguments: syscall_ptr, pedersen_ptr and range_check_ptr:

  1. You should be familiar with pedersen_ptr, which allows to compute the Pedersen hash function, and range_check_ptr, which allows to compare integers. But it seems that the contract doesn’t use any hash function or integer comparison, so why are they needed? The reason is that storage variables require these implicit arguments in order to compute the actual memory address of this variable. This may not be needed in simple variables such as balance, but with maps (see Storage maps) computing the Pedersen hash is part of what read() and write() do.

  2. syscall_ptr is a new primitive, unique to Starknet contracts (it doesn’t exist in Cairo). syscall_ptr allows the code to invoke system calls. It is also an implicit argument of read() and write() (required, in this case, because storage access is done using system calls).

Programming without hints

If you are familiar with programming in Cairo, you are probably familiar with hints. Unfortunately (or fortunately, depending on your personal opinion), using hints in Starknet is not possible. This is due to the fact that the contract’s author, the user invoking the function and the operator running it are likely to be different entities:

  1. The operator cannot run arbitrary Python code due to security concerns.

  2. The user won’t be able to verify that the operator ran the hint the contract author supplied.

  3. It is not possible to prove that nondeterministic code failed, since you should either prove you executed the hint or prove that for any hint the code would’ve failed.

For efficiency, hints are still used by the standard library functions, through a mechanism of whitelisting (a function is whitelisted by an operator if it agrees to run it, when it knows that it can run its hints successfully. It doesn’t have to do with the question of the soundness of the library function, which should be verified separately). This means that not all the Cairo library functions can be used when writing a Starknet contract. See here for a list of the whitelisted library functions.

Compile the contract

Create a file named contract.cairo and copy the contract code into it.

Run the following command to compile your contract:

starknet-compile contract.cairo \
    --output contract_compiled.json \
    --abi contract_abi.json

As mentioned above, we can’t compile Starknet contract using cairo-compile and we need to use starknet-compile instead.

The contract’s ABI

Let’s examine the file contract_abi.json that was created during the contract’s compilation:

        "inputs": [
                "name": "amount",
                "type": "felt"
        "name": "increase_balance",
        "outputs": [],
        "type": "function"
        "inputs": [],
        "name": "get_balance",
        "outputs": [
                "name": "res",
                "type": "felt"
        "stateMutability": "view",
        "type": "function"

The ABI file contains a list of all the callable functions and their expected inputs.

Declare the contract on the Starknet testnet

In order to instruct the CLI to work with the Starknet testnet you should either pass --network=alpha-goerli on every use, or set the STARKNET_NETWORK environment variable as follows:

export STARKNET_NETWORK=alpha-goerli

Unlike Ethereum, Starknet distinguishes between a contract class and a contract instance. A contract class represents the code of a contract (but with no state), while a contract instance represents a specific instance of the class, with its own state.

Run the following command to declare your contract class on the Starknet testnet:

starknet declare --contract contract_compiled.json

The output should look like:

Declare transaction was sent.
Contract class hash: 0x1e2208b571b2cb68908f37a196ed5e391c8933a6db23bb3939acedee40d9b8a
Transaction hash: 0x762e166dd3326b2e263eb5bcfdccd225dc88e067fdf7c92cf8ce5e4ea01f9f1

You can see here the class hash of your new contract. You’ll need this class hash in order to deploy an instance of the contract using the deploy system call.

Deploy the contract on the Starknet testnet

The alpha release is an experimental release. Newer versions may require a reset of the network’s state (resulting in the removal of the deployed contracts).

Run the following command to deploy your contract on the Starknet testnet (replace $CLASS_HASH with the class hash you got from starknet declare):

starknet deploy --class_hash $CLASS_HASH

The output should look like:

Invoke transaction for contract deployment was sent.
Contract address: 0x039564c4f6d9f45a963a6dc8cf32737f0d51a08e446304626173fd838bd70e1c
Transaction hash: 0x125e4bc5251af8ee2664ea0d1495b36c593f25f78f1a78f637a3f7aafa9e22

You can see here the address of your new contract. You’ll need this address to interact with the contract.

Set the following environment variable:

# The deployment address of the previous contract.
export CONTRACT_ADDRESS="<address of the previous contract>"

Interact with the contract

Run the following command to invoke the increase_balance():

starknet invoke \
    --address ${CONTRACT_ADDRESS} \
    --abi contract_abi.json \
    --function increase_balance \
    --inputs 1234

The result should look like:

Invoke transaction was sent.
Contract address: 0x039564c4f6d9f45a963a6dc8cf32737f0d51a08e446304626173fd838bd70e1c
Transaction hash: 0x69d743891f69d758928e163eff1e3d7256752f549f134974d4aa8d26d5d7da8

Due to the use of fees in Starknet, every interaction with a contract through a function invocation must be done using an account. To set up an account, see Setting up a Starknet account.

The following command allows you to query the transaction status based on the transaction hash that you got (here you’ll have to replace TRANSACTION_HASH with the transaction hash printed by starknet invoke):

starknet tx_status --hash TRANSACTION_HASH

The result should look like:

    "block_hash": "0x0",
    "tx_status": "ACCEPTED_ON_L2"

The possible statuses are:

  • NOT_RECEIVED: The transaction has not been received yet (i.e., not written to storage).

  • RECEIVED: The transaction was received by the sequencer.

  • PENDING: The transaction passed the validation and entered the pending block.

  • REJECTED: The transaction failed validation and thus was skipped.

  • ACCEPTED_ON_L2: The transaction passed the validation and entered an actual created block.

  • ACCEPTED_ON_L1: The transaction was accepted on-chain.

Query the balance

Use the following command to query the current balance:

starknet call \
    --address ${CONTRACT_ADDRESS} \
    --abi contract_abi.json \
    --function get_balance

The result should be:


To see the up-to-date balance you should wait until the increase_balance transaction status is at least ACCEPTED_ON_L2 (that is, ACCEPTED_ON_L2 or ACCEPTED_ON_L1). Otherwise, you’ll see the balance before the execution of the increase_balance transaction (that is, 0).

In the next section we will describe other CLI functions for querying Starknet’s state. Note that while deploy and invoke affect Starknet’s state, all other functions are read-only. In particular, using call instead of invoke on a function that may change the state, such as increase_balance, will return the result of the function without actually applying it to the current state, allowing the user to dry-run before committing to a state update.